A stemborer stem borer is any insect larva, or arthropod, that bores into plant stems. Species diversity, abundance, and dispersion of rice stem borers in framers fields were studied in four major rice growing areas of kahama district. The rice striped stem borer chilo suppressalis walker, the yellow stem borer scirpophaga incertulas walker, and the pink stem borer sesamia inferens walker are the most injurious insect pests of rice in the yangtze delta, one of the countrys rice bowls and a region undergoing rapid economic development. Bt rice plants may protect neighbouring nonbt rice plants against the striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis. The striped rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis walker, is one of the most destructive rice pests in china and many other asian countries goto et al. In australia, yield reduction due to the white stem borer was estimated at 30% in the summer crop, while the. Stem borers exhibit complete metamorphosis whereby larva is the only destructive stage srivastava et al. Crambidae, is a key rice pest that is widely distributed in most temperate areas of asia china, india, indonesia, iran, japan, korea, the philippines and europe spain, france, portugal and hungary. The objective of this study was to identify rice lines resistant to striped stem borer and to determine plant characteristics associated with resistance. Stem borer scirpophaga is a serious paddy pest in india, pakistan, burma, sri lanka, china, japan formosa, philippines and indonesia. A total of 42 rice lines were evaluated in the field under natural infestation conditions in. In this experiment, stem borer pressure was not exceptionally heavy and a significant yield response among treatments did not occur table 1. Since 1987, mrb has become an increasingly severe problem in texas rice. Pdf generation of markerfree bt transgenic indica rice.
Systematic position phylum arthropoda advertisements. Udpglycosyltransferase genes in the striped rice stem. Abundance and spatial dispersion of rice stem borer. Preliminary study on resistance of the rice stem borer. The principal rice borers in asia are chito suppressalis wlk. If rice is attacked in the vegetative stage, the yield loss varies, but if the infestation happens during the booting stage the yield loss could be as high as 9095%. Rnaseq of rice yellow stem borer scirpophaga incertulas. Rice stalk borer definition of rice stalk borer by. Management of rice stem borer using pheromone trap duration. It is attacked by nearly 100 insect pests, which inflict different types of injuries to the host. In india, the yellow stem borer caused 1% to 19% yield loss in early planted rice crops and 38% to 80% in late planted rice 3.
Determination of binding of bacillus thuringiensis delta. Development and implementation of an ipm program for. Information about stem borers, management and more. Most stem borers belong to the families pyralidae and noctuidae, and the immature insects, the caterpillars, tunneling in the stems and feeding on the soft tissues, cause the injury. It is a serious pest of wheat and rabi all over india but is more prevalent in south india. Gall midge orseolia oryzae cecidomyiidae diptera 3. A number of research papers have been published in china.
Rice stem borers are of major economic significance causing 2530% loss to rice crop 2. Description of common stem borers in the philippines. For either variety, panicle density in main and ratoon crops was not affected by stem borer damage table 1. Genomewide expression analysis of genes during the different developmental stages of the insect will provide molecular insights into its life. Genetics of sorghum, maize, rice and sugarcane resistance. The rice bug, another important pest of rice, caused damage by feeding on the sap of milky grain and turn them chaffy. Yellow stem borer, gallmidge, brown planthopper, green. So, in all the rice growing areas this insect or moth pest is available.
In 1980, mrb was introduced from mexico into the lower rio grande valley of texas and quickly caused overwhelming yield and quality losses to the major grass crops. For both varieties, for both main and ratoon crops, mexican rice borer was the predominant stem borer species about 70%. Comparative efficacy of different botanicals and chemical insecticides for controlling rice stem borer article pdf available december 2015 with 168 reads how we measure reads. Pdf integrated management of rice stem borers in the. The rice stem borer, which infest the rice from seedling to maturity, act as a major constraint. Bt rice plants may protect neighbouring nonbt rice plants against. Insecticidal activity and receptor binding properties of bacillus thuringiensis toxins to yellow and striped rice stem borers sciropophaga incertulas and chilo suppresalis, respectively were investigated. Grape, stem borer, management, coelosterna scrabrator. Small orange head with pale, hairless, yellowish body. Management of rice yellow stem borer, scirpophaga incertulas walker using some biorational insecticides sitesh chatterjee1 and palash mondal2 abstract the experiments were carried out to study the performance of some biorational insecticides against yellow stem borer, scirpophaga incertulas walker in boro rice at rice research station, chinsurah. Evaluation of different insecticides and botanical extracts against yellow stem borer, scirpophaga incertulas in rice field md. Increase of silicon levels in rice plants can increase the level of resistance to important pests in rice, especially the stem borers. Efficacy of insecticides against the rice stemborer.
Larvae of the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis walker, cause extensive crop losses worldwide. The pink stem borer is found in upland rice, which is grown near sugarcane or related grasses. It has also been detected in russia, hawaii usa and the northern territories of australia. The mexican rice borer mrb is a serious threat to sugarcane and rice in louisiana and texas. Unlike other species of stem borers, the pink stem borer lay bare eggs between the leaf sheath and the stem. In a recent replicated study, stalk borers primarily mrb. Approximately six major species of stem borer cause significant damage to rice cultivation. We report on generation of markerfree clean dna transgenic rice oryza sativa, carrying minimal geneexpressioncassettes of the genes of interest, and evaluation of its resistance to yellow stem borerscirpophaga incertulas lepidoptera. Stem borers are major biotic constraints to cereal production in subsaharan africa mailafiya et al. It is distributed throughout india and is considered as a serious pest of paddy.
Rice yellow stem borer scirpophaga incertulas walker. The nutritional requirements of the rice stem borer,chilo suppressalis walker were studied by rearing on synthetic food media in relation to the constituen. However, the possible roles of ugts in chlorantraniliprole resistance in chilo suppressalis have rarely been studied in detail. Stem borer is the second important rice pest after rats in indonesia. The influence of the lepidopteran stem borer scirpophaga incertulas walker, the most important pest of deepwater rice oryza sativa in southeast asia, on plant and grain yield was investigated in bangladesh during 198285. On the basis of percent damage, none of the genotypes was totally free from stem borer damage. The striped stem borer chilo suppressalis walker is one of the most important rice pests in asia. Pdf stem borer is the second important rice pest after rats in indonesia.
The spotted stemborer chilo partellus is an oligophagy and feeds on species of grasses and sedges which include several important cultivated cereals, especially maize, sorghum, rice, sugarcane, and millets. The presence of alternate hosts encourages the pink stem borer to develop, multiply and survive during winter or dry season. No matter which continent, ecosystem, or type of crop culture, a field of rice is usually infested by more than one stem borer species. In cauvery deltaic region four species of stem borer that is scirpophaga incertulas yellow stem borer, chilo. The international rice research institute irri was established in 1960 by the ford and.
Evaluation of different insecticides and botanical. But the resistance had dropped in recent years rr were from 21. Rice stalk borer definition is a rice borer that is the larva of a moth chilo plejadellus. Other stem borers on rice include dark headed borer,chilo suppressalis. Since pesticide application is the major management tactic in china, judicious timing of a minimal dose of insecticides is important in developing an ipm program for that pest. It survives on several grasses including sudan grass sorghum vulgare sudanense, napier grass pennisetum. Integrated management of cereal stem borers and striga. The rice genotypes screened out differ from one another with respect to stem borer infestation based on deadhearts, whiteheads and yield. Globally, yellow stem borer alone causes yield losses of 10 million tones and accounts 50% of all insecticides used in the rice field 6. Nazmul huda 1, prosanta kumar dash 1 1agrotechnology.
Both additive and nonadditive gene effects are important in the. Preliminary study on resistance of rice stem borer chilo suppressalis to fipronil 297 found that the field population in cangnan county had developed resistance against fipronil rr were 8. Yellow stem borer scirpophaga incertulas pyraustidae lepidoptera 2. The insects infest rice crops throughout their growth, from the seedling stage to maturity. Evaluation of insecticides for stem borer control discussion previous research by the entomology project has shown that stem borers can cause significant yield loss in rice. It is the most abundant stem borer in tropical lowland rice anddeepwater rice and is a damaging pest as it attacks allthe stages of the rice crop. Lepidoptera the pest is widely distributed in all asian countries, monophagous and is a major pest on rice in india. Pdf abundance and spatial dispersion of rice stem borer.
Generation of markerfree bt transgenic indica rice and. Integrated management of cereal stem borers and striga weed in maizebased cropping systems in africa z. Yellow stem borer is a serious pest of rice throughout india and south east asia. Yellow stem borer ysb was susceptible to cry1aa, cry1ac, cry2a, and cry1c toxins with similar toxicities. Uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferases ugts are multifunctional detoxification enzymes, which are involved in metabolizing various chemicals and contribute to the development of insecticide resistance. Efficacy of some novel insecticides against yellow stem r.
Striped rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis walker lepidoptera. Mating disruption to control the striped rice stem borer. Clip the seedling tips before transplanting to eliminate egg masses and collect and destroy the egg masses in main field. The borer larvae which hatch from the egg masses migrate within the leaf sheaths and the rice stem generally within 48 hours after hatching and feed on the leaf sheath tissues for about 6 days, after which they bore inside the rice stem. Management of rice stem borer director atari umiam.
This suggests stem borers did not reduce the density of culms producing panicles in the main or ratoon crop. The yellow stem borer ysb, scirpophaga incertulas walker lepidoptera. Pyralidae, is an important pest of rice, oryza sativa l. It is one of the major pests in all rice producing areas of the world. Mass rearing of the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis valker, have been developed in two courses, i. Results showed that the dominant species of stem borer was yellow stem borer. The transgenicindica rice harbours a translational fusion of 2 differentbacillus thuringiensis bt genes, namelycry1b1aa, driven by. Management of rice stem borer rice stem borer causes damage by reducing the number of tillers and yield.
Of the various major pests, the stem borer insect is the most dangerous enemy to the paddy plant. Pests of rice rice stem borer yellow stem borer scirpophaga incertulas pyralidae. Stem borer majrapoka any of the numerous species of lepidopterous insect pests that habitually bores into the stem of the host plant and feed on the inner tissues. Pdf comparative efficacy of different botanicals and. Nutritional studies of the rice stem borer, chilo suppressalis walker. Transgenic microrna14 rice shows high resistance to rice stem borer kang he1, huamei xiao2,3, yang sun3,4, simin ding1, gongming situ3 and fei li1, 1institute of insect sciencesministry of agriculture key laboratory of molecular biology of crop pathogens and insect pests, college of agriculture and biotechnology, zhejiang university, hangzhou, china. Several species of chilo are serious pests stem borers of sorghum, maize, rice and sugarcane. Studies on genetics of resistance to chilo species have been carried out only in a few cases. National symposium on sustainable pest management for safer environment held on 46 december at crri cuttak, 2007, 195197. Evaluation of resistance to striped stem borer in rice.
Family pyralidae genus scirpophaga tryporyza species incertulas distribution. Pests of rice borers and foliage feeders yellow stem borer, leaf folder, gall midge, other defoliators are important and cause significant reduction in yield in rice growing areas. Pdf this study was conducted to determine the effects of host plant resistance in early, medium and late sown varieties of rice 2 non aromatic ir8. Khan international centre for insect physiology and ecology icipe maize is the most important cereal crop, which serve as staple food for. However the term most frequently refers among the coleoptera to the larva of certain longhorn beetles such as dorysthenes buqueti and those of the genus oberea, and among the lepidoptera to certain moths of the crambidae, castniidae, gelechiidae, nolidae, and pyralidae families. Stem borer populations on rice decreased by up to 84% when vetiver rows were planted 50 meters apart and 35 meter apart in the row in most cases hedgerows on the paddy field boundaries.1471 1573 452 81 142 1114 147 965 1238 448 1210 962 783 1211 215 954 49 670 1196 459 1239 857 1371 1523 563 191 50 184 1437 955 1038 1083 1593 593 655 914 522 981 678 1280 712 385 617 1077 116 1038 897 610 1051 568